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Restoration Ecology - Week 1
Intro, Definitions, Scale

I. Introduction
A. Scope - An introduction to principals and practices of environmental restoration. Case studies, field site visits, and practical restoration experience will help students devlope skills and knowledge needed in ecological recreation, and enhancement. The course examines ecological theory as it relates to restoration, particularly with respect to terrestrial and wetland communities in Southern Florida. Much of the course will examine case studies, including the Kissimmee River Project, Cape Florida, the "Hole in the Donut" (Everglades National Park), and hammock communities in Dade County. Field trips to restoration projects will supplement course Class

Agricultural, suburban, and urban environments dominate the southern tip of Florida. Even the most pristine habitats are threatened by incompatible land use in surrounding areas. Smaller fragments of environmentally endangered lands within the developed matrix of southern Florida are not self-sustaining. These areas require careful management to maintain ecological processes and to controll the invasion of exotic species. County, state and federal government agencies are engaged in restoration of Florida's natural communities, including the Kissimmee River Project --- the largest restoration effort in the world. On an even smaller scale, local schools and homeowners are becoming more interested in creating natural communities on their properties.

This course examines the philosophy, practices, and processes of habitat restoration with a focus on southern Florida. It meets a need in the Environmental Studies Curriculum by applying theory learned in other courses to pressing problems in our region. The class will design and implement a small restoration on the FIU campus.
B. Prerequisites - EVR 3013 (Ecology of South Florida), PCB 3043 (Ecology), or permission of the instructor
C. Time 6:25 - 8:55 PM, with break midway

D. Grading
1. Summary Paper 20%
Class Project 20%
Ten Article Synopses 20%
Class Participation 20%
Take-home final 20%
2. Paper and Presentation
a. 10 pages (d.s.) including citations and figures
b. Detailed description of one restoration project
biological characterization
abiotic characterization
nature of disturbance
objectives of restoration
measurement of success
c. 20 references minimum
d. 10 minute class presentation
3. Class Project
a. Select and design a small campus restoration project
b. Team project - each student will be responsible for one aspect
c. 15 minute class presentation
4. Article Synopses
a. Five 1-page synopses of restoration articles from refereed journals
b. Five 1-page synopses of restoration
5. Class participation - based on contributions, comments on readings and 5 minute summations of articles
E. Readings - please read the assignments before class. Articles are on reserve in the library.
F. Schedule
G. Field Trip
II. Definitions
A. Background and History
1. In the planting of the seeds of most trees, the best gardeners do no more than follow nature, though they may not know it . . . So when we experiment in planting forests, we find ourselves at last doing as Nature does. Would it not be well to consult with Nature in the outset? for she is the most extensive and experienced planter of us all. Henry David Thoreau.
2. In 1935 CCC workers replanted a tallgrass prairie on old farmland outside Madison, WI under the direction of Aldo Leopold. According to restoration ecologists, this event marked the beginning of true restoration of ecological habitats. Previous attempts to "retore" were efforts to renew economic yield of agricultural and forest sites or to stop erosion or create rangelands. However, these claims ignore the efforts of indigenous people in managing their forests and fields.
B. Terms - General Definitions
1. Rebuild
a. Rebuilding (n) - the act or process of building again
b. Rebuild (v)
i. to make extensive repairs to, to build again, to remodel; reconstruct
ii. to build again; to reconstruct (OED)
2. Reclaim
a. Reclamation (n) - the act or process of reclaiming; rehabilitation, restoration, recovery
b. Reclaim (v)
i. to rescue from an undesirable state, to make available for human use; recover
ii. to put right, to remedy, correct, amend (something wrong, an error, fault, etc.) (OED)
iii. to reduce to obedience, tame, subdue (an animal, esp. a hawk, also rarely a person) (OED)
iv. to keep the growth of (wood or trees) within bounds (OED)
v. to remove (rude qualities) by means of instruction or culture; to bring (savage people) to a state of civilization (OED)
vi. to bring (waste land, or land formerly covered by water) under, or into a fit state for, cultivation (OED)
3. Reconstruct
a. Reconstruction (n) - the action of reconstruction
b. Reconstruct (v) - to construct again; reestablish
i. to construct anew.
ii. to construct anew in the mind; to restore (something past) mentally (OED)
4. Recover
a. Recovery (n) - the act, process, or an instance of recovering
b. Recover (v)
i. to get back, regain, to bring back to normal position or condition; rescue
ii. to reclaim (land) from the sea (OED)
iii. to remove (certain substances) from industrial waste in order that they may be reused (OED)
iv. to returrn to a quality, state, or condition (OED)
v. to restore (a person or animal) to health or strength; to cure, heal (OED)
vi. to restore (a person or thing) to a good or proper estate or condition; to set or make right again (OED)
vii. to bring back, rescue, reclaim from or out of a state, etc. (OED)
5. Recreate
a. Recreation (n) - restoration to health, creating anew
b. Recreate (v)
i. to create anew; restore, refresh
ii. to create anew (OED)
iii. to create anew in imagination (OED)
iv. to restore to a good or normal physical condition from a state of weakness or exhaustion (OED)
v. to restore to life, revive (OED)
6. Redeem
a. Redemption (n) - the act, process, or an instance of redeeming
b. Redeem (v)
i. to buy back; to free from what distresses or harms, to change for the better; repair, restore
ii. to buy back (a thing formerly possessed) (OED)
iii. to rescue, save, deliver (OED)
iv. to reclaim (land) (OED)
v. to restore, set right again (OED).
7. Reestablish
a. Reestablishment (n) - the act, process, or an instance of reestablishing
b. Reestablish (v)
i. to establish again; restore, renew, replace
ii. to establish (a person or thing) again in a former place, position, or state (OED) restore to a previous place or position (OED)
iv. to set up again in a status or condition similar to the former one (OED)
8. Regenerate
a. Regeneration (n) - the act or process of regenerating, the renewal or restoration of a body or bodily part after injury
b. Regenerate (v)
i. to form or create again, to restore to a better or more worthy state; rejuvenate, renew, recreate
ii. to reproduce, re-create; to form or bring into existence again (OED)
iii. to form again (OED)
9. Rehabilitate
a. Rehabilitation (n) - the action or process of rehabilitating
b. Rehabilitate (v)
i. to restore to a former capacity or former state, to restore to a condition of health or usefulness
ii. to re-establish the character or reputation of (a person or thing) (OED)
iii. to restore to a previous condition; to set up again in proper condition (OED)
10. Rejuvenate
a. Rejuvenation (n) - the act or process of rejuvenating
b. Rejuvenate (v)
i. to make young or youthful; renew
ii. to restore to youth; to make young or fresh again (OED)
iii. to restore to a condition characteristic of a younger landscape (GEOL) (OED).
11. Remedy
a. Remediation (n) - the act or process of remedying
b. Remedy (v)
i. to heal; relieve, repair
ii. to heal, cure, make whole again (OED)
iii. to cure (a disease, etc.); to put right; to rectify, make good (OED)
12. Renew
a. Renewal (n) - the act or process of renewing, the rebuilding of a large area [related to renewable]
b. Renew (v)
i. to make like new, restore to freshness; regenerate, renew
ii. to make new, or as new, again; to restore to the same condition as when new, young, or fresh (OED)
iii. to restore, re-establish, set up again, bring back into use or existence (OED)
13. Renovate
a. Renovation (n) - the act or process of renovating
b. Renovate (v)
i. to make new, revive, renew
ii. to renew materially; to repair; to restore by replacing lost or damaged parts; to create anew (OED)
iii. to renew on a higher level; to regenerate (OED)
14. Repair
a. Repairation (n) - the act or process of repairing
b. Repair (v)
i. to restore by replacing a part or putting together what is torn or broken, to restore to a sound or healthy state, renew, renew, mend
ii. to restore (a composite thing, structure, etc.) to good condition by renewal or replacement of decayed or damaged parts, or by refixing what has given way; to mend (OED)
iii. to renew, renovate (some thing or part); to restore to a fresh or sound condition by making up in some way for previous loss, waste, decay, or exhaustion (OED)
iv. to remedy, make up (loss, damage, etc.); to set right again (OED)
15. Rescue
a. Rescue (n) - an act of recovery
b. Rescue (v)
i. to free from danger, redeem, reclaim
ii. to recover (OED)
iii. to deliver or save (a person or thing) from some evil or harm (OED)
16. Restore
a. Restoration (n) - the act of restoring, bringing back to a former position or condition
b. Restore (v)
i. to bring back or to put back into a former or original state, renew
ii. to set right, repair (decay, etc.) (OED)
iii. to build up again; to re-erect or reconstruct. Especially to repair and alter (a building) so as to bring it as nearly as possible to its original form (OED)
iv. to bring back to the original state; to improve, repair, or retouch (a thing) so as to bring it back to its original condition (OED)
v. to renew; to set up or bring into existence again; to re-establish, bring back into use, etc. (OED)
17. Replace
a. Replacement (n) - the act or process of replacing
b. Replace (v)
i. to restore to a former place or position, to take the place of, substitute
ii. to restore to a previous place or position; to put back again into place (OED)
iii. to fill the place of (a person or thing) with or by a substitute (OED)

18. Replenish
a. Replenishment (n) - the act or process of replenishing
b. Replenish (v)
i. to supply fully, nourish, to fill or build up again
ii. to make full of, to fill, to stock or store abundantly with, persons or animals (OED)
iii. to fill up again; to restore to the former amount or condition (OED)
19. Enhance
a. Enhancement (n) - the act or process of enhancing
b. Enhance (v)
i. to make greater, intensify
ii. to raise in degree, heighten, intensify (qualities, states, powers, etc.) (OED)
20. Salvage
a. Salvage (n) - the act of saving or rescuing property from danger
b. Salvage (v)
i. to save from danger or destruction
ii. to make salvage of; to save or salve from shipwreck, fire, etc. (OED)
21. Mitigate
a. Mitigation (n) - the act or process of mitigating
b. Mitigate (v)
i. to alleviate, lessen
ii. to moderate (the severity, rigour, heinousness, etc., of something) (OED)
22. Reforest
a. Reforestation (n) - the act or process of reforesting
b. Reforest (v)
i. to renew forest cover by seeding or planting
ii. to cover again with forest (v)
23. Revegetate
a. Revegetation (n) - the act or process of revegetating
b. Revegetate (v)
i. to renew vegetation cover by seeding or planting
ii. to vegetate or grow again (OED)
iii. to produce the growth of new vegetation on (disturbed or barren ground); to colonize anew (OED)
C. Terms - Operational Definitions
1. Restore - to bring back an ecological community to a former or original state; renew, rehabilitate, redeem
2. Rehabilitate - to restore some aspects of a damaged community, to restore in part
3. Reclaim - to make available for human use
4. Recreate - to reestablish an ecological community that has been completely eliminated; regenerate
5. Remedy - to restore an ecological community to a former state of health
6. Replace - to substitute one ecological community for another, the substitute may or may not be a seral stage of the replaced community
7. Enhance - to increase or intensify community structure or function
8. Mitigate - to atone for the human destruction of an ecological community by recreating or restoring a similar community elsewhere
D. Discussion
1. Most (except, replace) involve a return to a previous state
2. Civil Engineering definition would differ
a. stabilize of land surface
b. control pollution
c. improve appearance
d. make suitable for human use (reclaim)
e. increase productivity
3. Ecological Definitions add the following
f. add diversity
g. improve species composition
h. enhance ecosystem function
E. Scale
1. Ecosystem
A. Everglades
B. Kissimee River
2. Communuty
A. Cape Florida
B. Hole-in-the donut
3. Population
A. Redfish in Biscayne Bay
4. Individuals
A. Panthers
F. Synthesis
1. "There is, to my knowledge, no generally accepted definition of restoration ecology since this is a newly emerging field. However, one might say that restoration ecology is the full or partial [re]placement of structural or functional characteristics that have been extinguished or diminished and the substitution of alternative qualities or characteristics than the ones originally present with the proviso they have more social, economic, or ecological value than existed in the disturbed or displaced state. (Cairns 1988)
2. Restoration ecology - making nature (L. Jackson 1992) in P.L. Fielder and S.K. Jain
3. Restoration Ecology - the study of theoretical principles and applications in population and community ecology aimed to restore and rehabilitate highly disturbed or degraded ecosystems to their more natural states (Fielder and Jain 1992)
4. Ecological Restoration - the process of intentionally altering a site to establish a defined, indigenous, historic ecosystem (Society of Ecological Restoration 1991)
III. Why Restore?
A. Legal Obligations
1. Because its the law - Federal Surface Control and Reclamation Act 1977
B. Moral Obligations
1. Stewardship
2. Future Generation
C. Aesthetics
D. Recreational
1. Increase Fish and Game
2. Increase Parkland
E. Ecological
1. Maintain habitat
2. Increase rare habitats
3. Protect rare and endangered species
4. Increase rare and endangered species
5. Maintain diversity
6. Increase diversity
F. Time
1. Restoration is nothing but an ecological shortcut
2. Bradshaw - given sufficient time, almost any degraded or destroyed ecosystem will restore itself.

G. Questions
1. Is it possible?
Requires understanding of the system and understanding of the damage
2. Measuring success (modified from Ewel)
Does it resemble the original?
Does it contain the same species and physiognomy?
Is the system sustainable?
Is it resistant to invasion?
Is it productive?
Does it retain nutrients?
Does it recreate biotic interactions?
3. Is it cost effective?
H. Testing the success of restoration?
1. Bradshaw - given sufficient time, almost any degraded or destroyed ecosystem will restore itself. Self-healing makes test difficult.
I. Practical aspects of reclamation (except for #1 nature achieves these through succession)
1. speed of attainment
2. cheapness
3. reliability in attainment
4. stability
J. Steps in restoration treatments
1. Soil replacement
2. Physical treatments
3. Nutrient addition
4. Toxicity decrease
5. Adding species